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Wireless Technology

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Wireless Technology

Wireless technology is the term utilized to define the transfer of information or data without a physical connector or electrical wire. Wireless communication utilizes electromagnetic waves such as light, electric fields, and magnetism, to transfer binary codes (0s and 1s) over the air; such codes are encoded by the transmitter and decoded by a receiver device. This topic interests me because wireless technology is one of the greatest and most revolutionary inventions.

For my research, I chose the disciplines of History, Psychology, and Economics. Before doing the research about wireless technology, I was wandering how does this topic relates to the disciplines of History, Psychology, and Economics. I was expecting to find any research or study that will illustrate the relationship. After the research, I found very interesting information; on the History discipline, I learned about the historical “never ending war” between companies to own rights over the wireless spectrum, for Psychology, I learned about the addictive psychological effects of cell-phones on students from both high school and college, and for Economics, the impact that wireless have on regional economy. Throughout the research, my objective was to analyze, from each discipline, three academic peer-reviewed articles and a journalistic article to identify the findings and methodologies utilized by the author(s).

The first discipline was History. History is the study of past events, especially in human affairs, and is as much social science as humanities. Unlike the disciplines of Psychology and Economics, the History research method consists of constructing past events based on objective information obtained from “Primary” and “Secondary” sources, and its methodology includes “who, when, where, why, and what. Also, it does not use experimentation like Psychology or statistical analysis like Economics. For this discipline I found the articles “War, Wireless, and Empire: Marconi and the British Warfare State, 1896-1903” obtained from Technology and Culture, “From Free Privilege to Regulation: Wireless Firms and the Competition For Spectrum Rights Before World War I” obtained from Business History Review, and “Scientific Fact or Engineering Specification? The US Navy’s Experiments on Wireless Telegraphy Circa 1910” also obtained from Technology and Culture. “War, Wireless, and Empire: Marconi and the British Warfare State, 1896-1903” published on October 2010 by Priya Satia, talks about the life of the Bolognese tinkerer Guglielmo Marconi during the British Warfare State that took place from 1896 to 1903. The author describes how the interest for growing science of the state gave Marconi an opportunity in Britain to link wireless technologies to the imperial state business. When Marconi arrived on London on 1896, he had to demonstrate that his device could cover large distances. Marconi’s technology was highly marketable due to the critical moment in the development of the British Warfare state; under the shadow of an imminent European war, the need of new technology quickly became the mean of gaining military and imperial advantage. The author discusses how Marconi’s long distance communication experiments traded the notion of imperial security when he searched for customers beyond the British State; Marconi’s successful efforts attracted British merchant customers with the need for long distance maritime communication, but he quickly became criticized after defying the market of wired companies with his wireless technology. The author also stated that the radio played such vital role in the imperial defense at the time of war that the press reports styled Marconi as an imperial hero who was battling the frontiers of space and time. The author concludes stating that Marconi’s fame ended when he was publicly discredited by Maskelyne; after that, Marconi could no longer resort to spectacular experimentation to assert his authority.

To write an accurate history regarding Marconi’s life and the development of his the radio, Priya Satia utilized archival work to gathered information from many different sources to piece together the history; such sources are considered secondary because they were not developed during Maroni’s time, and those sources are also derived from other sources (either primary or also secondary). The author utilized the methodology of “who, when, where, why, what” to develop this article regarding Marconi’s life.”Scientific Fact or Engineering Specification? The US Navy’s Experiments on Wireless Telegraphy Circa, 1910″ published on January 2004 by Yeang Chen-Pang, discusses the data obtained from long-range field test performed on 1913. These data were aimed to promote the wireless communication in the United States. In 1909, after a decade of failing attempts to promote wireless communications in the US, the US Navy’s bureau of equipment needed an impressive achievement; to do that, they decided to build the world’s most powerful radio transmitter to exemplify America’s military and economic potential. In 1910 the staff of Naval wireless telegraphic Laboratory, headed by Louis Winslow Austin, sailed a distance ranged 1,000 miles with two cruisers; along the way, radio signals from a radio station (NESCO) were carefully and constantly measured. Another field test was performed on 1913 after the construction of the Arlington station. The author stated that based on the US Navy’s early experiments on wireless telegraphy, he attempted to understand the construction of the Austin-Cohen formula; this formula states that the radio wave intensity attenuates with distance and the inverse squarer root wavelength. This formula was designed expressly to observe the behavior of certain wireless instruments and turn it into a subject to press scientific interest. The author believes that the development of Austin-Cohen formula marks the historical process of wireless communications to bound scientific knowledge with engineering techniques.

Yeang Chen-Pang performed archival work to obtain the information published in this article. He utilized both primary and secondary sources. The data collected from the wireless experiments is considered a primary source because it was recorded at the time of the event and published by the original author (Louis Winslow Austin). To develop the history portion of this article, the author gathered information from textbooks written by third parties; these sources are considered secondary sources. “From Free Privilege to Regulation: Wireless Firms and the Competition for Spectrum Rights before World War I” published on September 2007 by Elizabeth Kruse, discussed how the property rights in the radio spectrum was developed in the United States between the years 1899 and 1927. She stated that the radio spectrum property right was developed due to the activities of many wireless commercial companies right after the invention of the radio broadcast on the 1920s; these activities formed the basis for commercial claims to property rights in the spectrum. The activities of the first few companies, especially De Forest/United Wireless company, were of crucial importance in shaping the commercial property rights in the spectrum of USA; De Forest/United Wireless company created a strong commercial presence to oppose government ownership and operation of wireless communications in peacetime. The author stated that the lack of interest in early wireless companies reflects a boarder gap in the literature on the history of radio in the United States. The author concludes stating “In this article, I try to bridge the gap by combining a concern with the development of property rights in the radio spectrum with a historical research on the activities of commercial wireless firms before WWI.

I will show that these activities had a lasting impact on spectrum property rights. This historical process of creating rights in the radio spectrum also is relevant to communication issues beyond radio, because the structure of property rights developed to allocate the radio spectrum has influenced the property regimes created for newer communications technologies, such as television and the Internet, by profoundly influencing the institutional and ideological context that has shaped these more recent technologies.”

Elizabeth Kruse utilized primary and secondary sources to construct this article. The primary sources were created during the development of the spectrum property right period between 1899 and 1927; example of these sources are the magazine “The Wireless Telegraph Bubble: Part 1 and Part 2” created on June 1907 and July 1907 respectively by Frank Fayant, a “Letter to Reginald Fessenden” written on may 1903 by A.G. Davis, and a De Forest Wireless Telegraph System book known as “MacLaurin, Invention & Innovation 80-i” written on Nov 1907. Secondary sources included third party textbooks.

The second discipline was Psychology. Psychology is the study of the mind; this is the scientific study of behavior and experience. This science utilized both Qualitative (Interviews, first hand observation and participant observation) and Quantitative (Controlled Experiments) approach to obtain information. Unlike History and Economics, this science can determine (“probe”) hypothesis by experimentation. The articles for this discipline are “Mobile Phone Dependence of Female Students and Perceived Parental Rearing Attitudes” obtained from Social Behavior and Personality, “Perceptions of Texting: A Comparison of Female High School and College Students” obtained from North American Journal of Psychology, and “Impact of Wireless Technology in a Human Sexuality Course” also obtained from North American Journal of Psychology.

On “Mobile Phone Dependence of Female Students and Perceived Parental Rearing Attitudes” published on July 2008 by Satoko Ezoe , Mika Goto , Kanehisa Morimoto, Takashi Mukai , Asaya Nishi, and Masahiro Toda, the authors discuses the results of a study made with 155 female students. In this research, the authors were investigating the association between the cell-phone dependency and the rearing attitudes perceived by the parents of the candidates. For this investigation, the participants completed the “Mobile Phone Dependence Questionnaire (MPDQ performed by Monden, Kubo, Toda, and Morimoto on 2004) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI performed by Tupling, Brown, and Parker on 1979).” The PBI was a self-rating questionnaire of 25 items which measured the fundamental dimensions of parenting, care, and overprotection; these items consisted on 12 items rating parental care and 12 items relevant to overprotection. The MPDQ was also a self-rating questionnaire of 25 items which evaluates mobile phone dependence, perceived parenting, and loneliness. The analysis made to the results of the maternal rearing attitudes and the paternal rearing attitudes questionnaires revealed a statistically difference in MPDQ scores between the categories “high care/high protection” and the “low care/low protection.” Unlike the paternal rearing attitudes, the analysis of the data revealed associations between mobile phone dependence and perceived maternal rearing attitudes; the high care/high protection group had significantly higher scores than the low care/ low protection group. The findings suggest that for females, techno stress such as mobile phone dependency may be associated same-sex parental rearing attitudes.

In order to determine the hypothesis, the authors utilized written questionnaire to obtain information. After obtaining this information, the authors utilized the research method of statistical analysis to determine the results. This type of research produces quantitative evidence because of the results generated from the 155 subjects studied. In this study, the hypothesis was “Does parenting have effects of mobile phone dependency on female students?” where the dependent variable was the amount of student and parents who were involved on the experiment, and the conclusion was “findings suggest that for females, phone dependency is associated with same-sex parenting” “Perceptions of Texting: A Comparison of Female High School and College Students” published on June 2013 by Sarah Tulane and Troy E. Beckert, discusses many different studies regarding the usage of text messaging on female high school and college students. In this study the author attempts to answer to what extend do they differ in the perception of the appropriateness of texting behavior. In a comparison with college students, high school students were asked about the appropriateness of sending text that are relevant to dating relationships, and communicating during class and during religious services. The author stated that most adolescents consider cell phone texting as their primary source of communication because is a private and a direct way of communicating (Pettigrew, 2009). In another study (Madden and Lenhart, 2009) where 800 adolescents were interviewed, it was found that older teens are more likely to have a cell phone and use text messaging than younger teens. According to another study performed by Faulkner and Culwin on 2005, there are many differences in messaging between genders; this study determined that females send more text messages than males. Texting is now the preferred method of communication between American teens. The author concludes stating that the life phase phenomenon of texting is really more characteristic of adolescence. The college students sample had a more conservatives opinions regarding texting because it is not used to the extend it is in high school relationship formation and social life.

To perform the comparison, the authors gathered information from other different studies that were related to the topic of perception of texting. The research method utilized in this article is the statistical analysis due to the number of studies which were compared. This type of study produces quantitative results due to the large number of high school and college students and parents who were interviewed on those studies.

The article “Impact of Wireless Technology in a Human Sexuality Course” published on June 2011 by Debra B. Hull and John H. Hull, explains the results of a experiment performed on an undergraduate human sexuality course. In this course, two classes were presented using a traditional lecture-base method (Non-PRS Days) and one class was presented using wireless headset technology (PRS Day). The author stated that while an ongoing evaluation of the term showed very little difference between the lecture-base and the wireless base classes, an end-of-term evaluation from the students confirmed that they participated significantly more on wireless days. Students reported that the major advantage of using wireless was the ability of providing anonymous answers to sexuality questions. The device utilized on this experiment was the “Wireless personal response system (PRS);” this was handheld response device and compilation software which allowed each individual to make responses such as multiple choices, true-false, and numerical. These devices, known as “clickers,” are marketed to help engaging students more actively in learning, motivate student’s attention, and provide feedback to allow instructors to design presentations to the level of understanding of the students. In a study performed on 2004, 26 reports of the use of wireless technology were reviewed; this study found that the most commonly reported outcome was the greater student engagement, increased student understanding of material and enjoyment of the class, and better group interaction. A review about the use of “clickers” performed by Caldwell concludes that the use of clickers has a positive effect on student learning, and increases student participation and engagement in class as long as the clicker performance is evaluated.

The authors obtained their information from different sources with similar wireless technology (clicker) to support the study on sexuality courses. These sources included physics classes, economics classes, statistic classes and reviews of the technology by “experts.” The research method utilized in this study was the statistical analysis due to the analysis of numerical values gathered and the association with similar studies. This type of research produced quantitative evidence. In this quantitative study the hypothesis was “What’s the effects of clickers in sexuality classes?” the variables (dependent/independent) were the amount of students who were involved in the experiment (either male or female), and the conclusion was that the use of “clicker” does have positive effects on student learning.

The third discipline was Economics. The science of Economics is the study of production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services. This science is more than just money transfer as it also studies human behavior and choices. Like psychology, this science also utilizes the “Qualitative” and “Quantitative” approach to gather information; this information is then analyzed to determine supply on demand, cost benefits analysis, and incentives. The articles for this discipline are “Efficiency Effects on the U.S. Economy from Wireless Taxation” obtained from National Tax Journal, “Wireless Sensor Technology in Dementia Care” obtained from EuroMed Journal of Business, and “Keynes on the Wireless” obtained from Journal of Economic Issues.

“Efficiency Effects on the U.S. Economy from Wireless Taxation” published on September 2000 by Jerry Hausman, discusses the content of a paper which measures for the first time the economic efficiency effects caused by the taxation of wireless services, and suggest alternative methods that the Federal Communications Committee (FCC) can use to solve the issue. The author stated that the taxes identified on this paper cost the economy $2.56 billion more over the $4.79 billion on tax revenue; this was a greater drain of the economy than their actual cost. The author stated that the State’s local taxes on wireless services changes depending on jurisdiction, and often are greater than the taxes on other type of business. There are more than 69 million wireless consumers who spend about $525 per year on cellular service. Because of this, Federal, states, and local governments have seen wireless as a ready source of tax revenue, and also the FCC uses founds obtained from wireless to subsidy wire line programs. According to an analysis, the effects of the taxation of wireless by the federal and local state increases the cost to consumers, suppress demand, and impose efficiency loses on the economy. The author also stated that the distortion effect on telecommunications produced by taxation is higher than the effects created by income and sales tax revenue. The author stated that alternative methods can be utilized to solve the efficiency issue, and suggested that Hausman (1998) and Hausman and Shelanski (1999) discuss a far better method to solve the efficiency issues; this method states that the FCC could increase its revenue for the universal subsidy by increasing the Subscriber Line Charge (SLC). The author concludes stating that no economic analysis has been done with respect to a benefit-cost analysis to determine if the benefits outweigh the high efficiency cost to consumers and the US economy, and the FCC and states should implements regulatory requirements that lead to commensurate benefits to consumers.To determine possible solution for the efficiency, Jerry Hausman utilized the economics mathematical and statistical analysis methods. For the statistical analysis, he obtained surveys to determine how much were wireless users paying annually on federal, state, and local taxes. For the mathematical approach, he gathered numerical tax data to assets the economic efficiency problem and come up with alternative methods. This research method produced quantitative evidence.”Wireless sensor technology in dementia care” published on 2013 by Elizabeth Delbreil and Gilbert Zvobgo, discusses a study which seeks the development of wireless sensor technology (WSN) businesses working in gerontechnology. The author stated that improving the quality of life is the main focus of the dementia care and research; these researches are devoted to understand perception and find relationship between quality of life and the psychological symptoms of dementia. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) technologies are the key application in healthcare and computer science to improve QoL. Studies were performed to determine how does the adoption of wireless sensor technology will influence the Quality of life on patients with dementia; to analyze the perception on this technology, 60 health professionals involved in elderly care were surveyed. The wireless application for dementia care includes devices to facilitate technology-assisted independent living and emotional engagement devices therapy to reduce dementia symptoms. The technology can be used to transmit health -related events such as falling, missed meals, or forgotten medications. Wireless sensors technology and mobile technology in general will be an increasingly important part in everyday aspects of healthcare. The result of the research has shown a positive caregivers’ perception on the wireless sensor networks (WSN) to improved care-recipient QoL and ease the caregiver burden. The author concludes stating “we can make several recommendations to entrepreneurs creating and commercializing WSN technology to ensure take-up amongst the elderly to mitigate loss of cognitive functions… at this precise point in time, government policies are changing, there is increasing acceptance and this opportunity should not be missed.”

To analyze how to improve QoL, Elizabeth Delbreil and Gilbert Zvobgo utilized data collection techniques such as experiments and statistical analysis approach. For the data collection techniques, they interviewed caregivers in order to get their perspective of this technology. A statistical analysis was performed from qualitative and quantitative data obtained from many cases of patients with dementia. This research produced combined qualitative and quantitative evidence.

In “Keynes on the Wireless” published on March 2012 by Mario A Cedrini, the author discusses a book titled “Keynes on the Wireless” where all the broadcasted scripts, except from the British Broadcasting Corporation, made by Maynard Keynes during his career of economist and commentator were brought together. There is twenty-one broadcast covered in this book. Those broadcast were made between January 1925 and July 1945; these decades where marked by Britain’s depression. In one of those broadcast, Keynes stated that “The science of economics, banking, and finance was in a backward state, but yet, he knew perfectly that it was progressing very far all the same.” The author stated that Keynes’s clear and passionate position on controversial matters was very difficult to reconciling in the collected Keynes’s Writings. The author also stated that we cannot fail to appreciate the didactic tone utilized on the Bank Rate interpretations in 1929, or the animating passion of his original proposal on how to pay for WWII. Keynes stated “Economics as the science required to provide men with the material preconditions for a happy and valuable life…” The author stated that this book helps us to understand that for Keynes, the science of economics is a mean and never an end, and he concludes with a quotation from Keynes’s book; ” to combine an unlimited readiness to experiment with changes in political and economic methods and institutions, whilst preserving traditionalism and a sort of careful conservatism, thrifty of everything which has human experience behind it, in every branch of feeling and action.” Mario A Cedrini utilized archival work research to obtain the information posted on this article; the collection of Keynes’s books can be considered as a primary source of information for this purpose. The character described as Keynes utilized statistical analysis to understand British’s depression and provide solutions and comments on his broadcasts. This type of evidence produces qualitative evidence.On the New York Times I was able to find three journalistic articles supporting the outcomes of some of the previous academic journals. The main difference between a journalistic article and an academic article is the research method. Academic articles are factual while journalistic articles, even if it contains some facts, are bias in nature. The supporting evidence for an academic article is obtained by experimentation while the evidence for journalistic articles is obtained from “experts” opinions. Also, the author of the academic article must be both “credible and qualified” on the topic while the journalist only needs to have an opinion. The articles that I found were titled “Wireless Spectrum Auction Raises $19 Billion” by Stephen Labaton, “Texting
May Be Taking a Toll” by Katie Hafner, and “In Cities Facing Budget Deficits, Cell-phone Becomes a Taxpayer” by Ken Belson. Related to the History disciple, the journalist article “Wireless Spectrum Auction Raises $19 Billion” illustrates the “never-ending war” between companies to own rights over the wireless spectrum. This article was published on March 19, 2008 by Stephen Labaton. The author stated that this was the most lucrative government auction in history and explained that major communication companies like AT&T, Verizon, and Google were bidding billions of dollars to win rights over wireless spectrum. The author explains that as broadcaster transitioned to digital television, they surrendered the spectrum licenses that were subjects to the bidding to the Federal Communications Commission. The winner of the bidding will have access to the best remaining spectrum licenses. The chairman of the commission predicted that the requirements of being in the bidding committed major wireless companies to open wireless networks to more kinds of devices and applications that leads to more innovations. The author also stated that even if the bidding will yield more billions of dollars than estimated, the network for public safety organizations (D-block) failed to attract the minimum required bid, therefore new rules for those licenses had to be rewritten. The author concluded stating “Just completed the wireless auction, it has successfully begun the process of opening up the US market for more wireless devices and applications… The private sector can operate their wireless networks commercially while simultaneously fulfilling an important role for first responders.”
For the Psychology discipline, the journalistic article “Texting May Be Taking a Toll” relates to the findings of the academic article titled “Mobile Phone dependence of female students and perceived parental rearing attitudes.” This article was published on May 25, 2009 by Katie Hafner. The author explains the effects that wireless devices are having on the behavior and the health of kids. The author introduces the article stating “kids text late at night, at restaurants, while crossing busy streets, in the classrooms, they do it so much that their thumbs hurt.” The author stated that the phenomenon is beginning to worry physicians and psychologists because it is leading to anxiety, distraction at school, constant stress injury and sleep deprivation. According to a survey performed on high school students by a pediatrician in Greenbrae in California, found that many students were routinely sending hundreds of texts every day translates into one every few minutes. A psychologist, director of the Initiative on Technology, performed a study on texting among teenagers is Boston and said it might be causing a shift in the way adolescents develop. A professor at the University of Washington stated that based on the experience with computer users, extensive repetitive use of upper extremities can cause musculoskeletal disorders; this is enough reason to believe that too much texting can cause temporary or permanent damage to the thumbs.
In the Economics disciple, the journalistic article “In Cities Facing Budget Deficits, Cell-phone Becomes a Taxpayer” illustrates how the economy of a region can be affected by the taxation of wireless. This article was published on March 14, 2005 by Ken Belson. The author explains how the city of Baltimore, while facing a budget shortfall, imposed taxes on wireless services to increase its revenue. The author stated that when the city of Baltimore began to collect $3.50 a month from each mobile phone subscriber, the extra income helped to strength the city’s finances. The author quoted the president of the City Council who stated “I can’t remember the last time we’ve had such an easy budget year…when federal and state taxes are drying up, you need other income.” Officials from different cities are eager to tax cell phones because the amounts are so small that can go virtually unnoticed by the subscribers, but aggregated can be substantial. The new taxes led wireless companies to form alliances with consumers and tax reformers to fight new city’s fees. The author also quoted Verizon’s general counsel who stated “we have no problem with the revenues needs of the localities… but certain class of customers and services should be singled out for excessive taxation.” The author also stated that the tax revenue generated by the city of Baltimore has become a model for other cash-short cities. The author concluded stating that some states and local lawmakers are rethinking the tax system beyond cell-phones like creating a uniform tax for all forms of telecommunications which will help lower the phone service tax. All my journalistic articles used the same methodology. The journalist repeatedly utilized the interviewing method to obtain the supporting evidence for the article. The person who was interviewed was either a person with authority or an expert with vast knowledge relevant to the topic. In none of the journalistic articles the author was an experts on the topics, instead, each one of them supported his/her opinions and ideas with the experts’ comments or their factual findings. In conclusion, the topic of wireless technology interests me because is one of the greatest and most revolutionary inventions. After doing the research about wireless technology on the disciplines of History, Economics, and Psychology, I learned about the never-ending war between companies to own rights over wireless spectrum, the addictive psychological effects of cell-phones on students from both high school and college, and the impact that wireless have on regional economy. I learned to judge the content between academic and journalistic articles as well as analyzing it to identify findings, research methods, and methodologies utilized by the author(s)

Bibliography

• Priya Satia, “War, Wireless, and Empire: Marconi and the British Warfare State, 1896-1903,” Technology and Culture Journal (Oct 2010).
• Elizabeth Kruse, “From Free Privilege to Regulation: Wireless Firms and the Competition for Spectrum Rights before World War I,” Business History Review Journal (Winter 2002): 559-703.
• Chen-Pang, Yeang, “Scientific Fact or Engineering Specification? The US Navy’s Experiments on Wireless Telegraphy Circa,” Technology and Culture Journal (Jan 2004).
• Satoko Ezoe , Mika Goto , Kanehisa Morimoto , Takashi Mukai , Asaya Nishi, and Masahiro Toda, “Mobile Phone Dependence of Female Students and Perceived Parental Rearing Attitudes,” Social Behavior and Personality Journal (July 2008): 765-770.
• Sarah Tulane and Troy E. Beckert, “Perceptions of Texting: A Comparison of Female High School and College Students,” North American Journal of Psychology (Jun 2013): 292-395.
• Debra B. Hull, and John H. Hull, “Impact of Wireless Technology in a Human Sexuality Course,” North American Journal of Psychology (Jun 2011): 242-245.
• Jerry Hausman, “Efficiency Effects on the U.S. Economy from Wireless Taxation,” National Tax Journal (Sep 2000): 733-742.
• Elizabeth Delbreil, and Gilbert Zvobgo, “Wireless Sensor Technology in Dementia Care,” EuroMed Journal of Business (2013): 79-97.
• Mario A Cedrini, “Keynes on the Wireless,” Journal of Economic Issues (Mar 2012): 256-258.
• Katie Hafner, “Texting May Be Taking a Toll,” New York Times, May 25, 2009.
• Stephen Labaton, “Wireless Spectrum Auction Raises $19 Billion,” New York Times, March 19, 2008.
• Ken Belson, “In Cities Facing Budget Deficits, Cell-phone Becomes a Taxpayer,” New York Times, May 14, 2005.

Priya Satia, “War, Wireless, and Empire: Marconi and the British Warfare State, 1896-1903,” Technology and Culture Journal (Oct 2010).

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